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Chapter 3 Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

After the Civil War, the period of rebuilding the South was called
a.
Reconstruction.
c.
Rebuilding.
b.
Reorganization.
d.
Reformation.
 

 2. 

The rival plan proposed by Congress to President Abraham Lincoln's Reconstruction plan was the
a.
Rival Bill.
c.
Wade-Davis Bill.
b.
Fifteenth Amendment.
d.
Freedmen's Bureau.
 

 3. 

Who was accused of assassinating President Abraham Lincoln?
a.
Wade Davis
c.
John Wilkes Booth
b.
Dr. Samuel Mudd
d.
William Petersen
 

 4. 

To many freed men and women, what reestablished slavery in disguise?
a.
slave codes
c.
literacy tests
b.
poll taxes
d.
black codes
 

 5. 

What grants full citizenship to all individuals born in the United States?
a.
Thirteenth Amendment
c.
Fifteenth Amendment
b.
Fourteenth Amendment
d.
Sixteenth Amendment
 

 6. 

What did Congress pass to prohibit the president from removing government officials without the Senate's approval?
a.
Impeachment Act
c.
Tenure of Office Act
b.
black codes
d.
override
 

 7. 

Northerners who supported the Republicans and moved to the South during Reconstruction were called
a.
scalawags.
c.
freedmen.
b.
carpetbaggers.
d.
fugitives.
 

 8. 

What secret society often killed African Americans in the South?
a.
Freedmen's Bureau
c.
Southerners' Society
b.
White Man's Society
d.
Ku Klux Klan
 

 9. 

Along with education most freed people wanted
a.
food.
c.
land.
b.
new houses.
d.
new jobs.
 

 10. 

What changed the political balance in the South by restoring full rights to people who supported the Democrats?
a.
Amnesty Act
c.
Fifteenth Amendment
b.
Freedmen's Bureau
d.
Reconstruction Act
 

 11. 

To all white Southerners, except Confederate leaders, Lincoln offered
a.
amnesty.
c.
freedom.
b.
reconstruction.
d.
the Ten Percent Plan.
 

 12. 

What agency helped freed African Americans by establishing schools?
a.
Reconstruction Bureau
c.
the Ten Percent Plan
b.
Wade-Davis Bill
d.
Freedmen's Bureau
 

 13. 

Before they could join the Union, Southern states had to ratify the
a.
Fourteenth Amendment.
c.
Fifteenth Amendment.
b.
Thirteenth Amendment.
d.
Sixteenth Amendment.
 

 14. 

What amendment states that no state could take away a citizen's life, liberty, and property "without due process of law"?
a.
Thirteenth Amendment
c.
Fourteenth Amendment
b.
Sixteenth Amendment
d.
Fifteenth Amendment
 

 15. 

Republicans in Congress easily overrode Johnson's vetoes and took charge of Reconstruction during
a.
Radical Reconstruction.
c.
Congressional Reconstruction.
b.
Restoration.
d.
Radical Rebuilding.
 

 16. 

What violated the tradition that presidents controlled their cabinets?
a.
override
c.
veto
b.
black codes
d.
Tenure of Office Act
 

 17. 

When President Andrew Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act, he was
a.
reelected.
c.
impeached.
b.
supported.
d.
overridden.
 

 18. 

Only a few states required that schools be
a.
certified.
c.
equal.
b.
integrated.
d.
rebuilt.
 

 19. 

The most common form of farm work for freed individuals was
a.
pig farming.
c.
sharecropping.
b.
corn farming.
d.
cotton growing.
 

 20. 

One of the leading industries of the New South was
a.
music.
c.
printing.
b.
dairy farming.
d.
textiles.
 
 
“Yesterday  . . . my sister and I formally opened school . . .  We have more than one thousand children, and seventy-five adults; and found time, after disciplining them, to hear the readers, to instruct the writers, and to teach the multitude from the blackboard.” –Lucy Chase, April 1865
 

 21. 

mc021-1.jpg The school, referenced in the quote, was one of the institutions to help formerly enslaved persons adjust set up by the
a.
the Wade-Davis Bill
c.
the Radical Republicans
b.
the Freedmen’s Bureau
d.
the Twelfth Amendment
 
 
“. . . [The Confederate states] have torn their constitutional States into atoms, and built on their foundations fabrics of a totally different character. Dead men cannot raise themselves. Dead States cannot restore their existence ‘as it was.’ Whose especial duty is it to do it? In whom does the Constitution place the power? Not in the judicial branch of Government, for it only adjudicates and does not prescribe laws. Not in the Executive, for he only executes and cannot make laws. Not in the Commander-in-Chief of the armies, for he can only hold them under military rule until the sovereign legislative power of the conqueror shall give them law. . . .”
 

 22. 

mc022-1.jpg In this passage, Thaddeus Stevens implies that direction of Reconstruction in the southern states is the job of
a.
the state legislatures.
c.
the Department of the Interior.
b.
the Union army.
d.
the Congress.
 
 
“. . . [I]n comes a powerful, short-limbed black in tattered overcoat. . . . He has made a crop; found everything—mules, feed, implements; hired his own help,—fifteen men and women; managed everything; by agreement he was able to have one half; but, owing to an attempt to swindle him, he has had the cotton attached and now it is not on his account he has come, but he is owing his men wages, and they want something for Christmas, which he thinks reasonable, and he desires the _____ assistance to raise three hundred dollars. . . . ‘For I'm bound,’ he says, ‘to be liberal with my men.’”
 

 23. 

mc023-1.jpg Which word best fills in the blank for this description of a scene in a federal agency during Reconstruction?
a.
Reconstruction Division’s
c.
Restoration Department’s
b.
Freedman’s Bureau’s
d.
Resettlement Bureau’s
 
 
“To-day a nation sits down beneath the shadow of its mournful grief. Oh, what a terrible lesson does this event read to us! . . . Well, it may be in the providence of God this blow was needed to intensify the nation's hatred of slavery...”
–Frances Ellen Watkins, African American poet, April 1865
 

 24. 

mc024-1.jpg What is Watkins referencing that has caused the nation to mourn?
a.
the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
b.
the Ten Percent Plan
c.
the assassination of President Lincoln
d.
Reconstruction
 
 
“White men alone must manage the South.”
–President Andrew Johnson
 

 25. 

mc025-1.jpg Which statement best describes what Johnson meant by saying this?
a.
Only white people were capable of making the decisions needed to manage government in the South.
b.
White people did not need the help to determine how the South would be managed.
c.
Each state must decide itself how it wanted to treat freed African Americans.
d.
All freed African Americans must be granted equal rights and should be able to vote.
 
 
“[He has used] the veto power conferred by the Constitution as a remedy for ill-considered legislation . . . into a weapon of offense against Congress.”
–Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, 1868
 

 26. 

mc026-1.jpg Whose misuse of the power of the veto is condemned in this quotation?
a.
Abraham Lincoln
c.
Rutherford B. Hayes
b.
Alexander H. Stephens
d.
Andrew Johnson
 
 
“We simply ask that we shall be recognized as men; . . . that the same laws which govern white men shall govern black men; . . . that, in short we be dealt with as others are—in equity and justice.”
–petition of an African American convention, 1865
 

 27. 

mc027-1.jpg As suggested by this passage, after the Civil War most formerly enslaved people sought
a.
revenge for the wrongs done to them.
b.
power over whites in government.
c.
respect and equality as human beings.
d.
repayment for wages owed them.
 
 
“Wherever I go—the street, the shop, the house, the hotel, or the steamboat—I hear people talk in such a way as to indicate that they are yet unable to conceive of _____ as possessing any rights at all.”
–Carl Schurz, 1865
 

 28. 

mc028-1.jpg To what group of people does this quotation by a traveler in the South right after the Civil War refer?
a.
unmarried women
c.
Native Americans
b.
African Americans
d.
factory workers
 
 
“All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United Sates and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
 

 29. 

mc029-1.jpg This description of the rights of United States citizens is a quotation from
a.
the Fugitive Slave Act.
c.
the Fourteenth Amendment.
b.
the Twelfth Amendment.
d.
the First Amendment.
 
 
“The military rule which [the First Reconstruction Act] establishes is plainly to be used, not for any purpose of order or for the prevention of crime, but solely as a means of coercing the people into the adoption of principles and measures to which it is known that they are opposed, and upon which they have an undeniable right to exercise their own judgment.
“I submit to Congress whether this measure is not in . . . palpable conflict with the plainest provisions of the Constitution, and utterly destructive to those great principles of liberty and humanity for which our ancestors on both sides of the Atlantic have shed so much blood and expended so much treasure. . . .”
–President Andrew Johnson, 1867
 

 30. 

mc030-1.jpg This excerpt from a message to Congress by Johnson argues that the First Reconstruction Act
a.
is a necessary measure to maintain order in the Southern states.
b.
is contrary to the Constitution.
c.
will encourage the Southern states to recover.
d.
will help African Americans.
 
 
“The bulk of [the African American] people—by surroundings, habits, adaptation, and choice—will continue to find their homes in the South, and constitute the masses of its yeomanry. We will there probably, of our own volition and more abundantly than in the past, produce the great staples that will contribute to the basis of foreign exchange, . . . and build up the prosperity of the whole land. Whatever our ultimate position in the composite civilization of the Republic and whatever varying fortunes attend our career, we will not forget our instincts for freedom nor our love of country.”
–Blanche K. Bruce, Senator from Mississippi, speaks in the Senate
 

 31. 

mc031-1.jpg This passage, by a Senator of African American descent, emphasizes which features of the South’s African Americans?
a.
their contribution to the economy, desire for freedom, and patriotism
b.
their suffering under slavery, anger at oppression, and patriotism
c.
their desire for revenge, new economic power, and demand for freedom
d.
their economic suppression, desire for freedom, and patriotism
 
 
“. . . The juries were made up of Ku-Klux, and it was impossible for any of the loyal people to get justice before the courts. Not less than fifty or sixty persons have been killed by the Ku-Klux in the State, besides some three or four hundred whippings, and there has never been a man convicted that I have heard of. Out of all those that I arrested, against whom there was as good proof as could possibly be given, enough to convict anybody before twelve honest men, I do not think one has ever been tried.”
–Colonel George W. Kirk, a North Carolina state trooper, describing
how the Klan worked to a Senate investigating committee
 

 32. 

mc032-1.jpg According to the excerpt, violence by the Ku Klux Klan against African Americans and their white supporters was _____ to stop because juries often _____.
a.
very easy; were against the Ku Klux Klan and its activities
b.
difficult; did not believe the evidence was strong against the Ku Klux Klan
c.
very difficult; were made up of Ku Klux Klan members
d.
quite easy; felt the evidence was very solid against the Ku Klux Klan
 
 
“The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.”
 

 33. 

mc033-1.jpg This quotation presents which civil rights leader’s opinion of the impact of Reconstruction?
a.
W.E.B. Du Bois
c.
Thaddeus Stevens
b.
Hiram Revels
d.
Blanche K. Bruce
 
 
“ . . .out-Yankee the Yankees [and build a] ‘New South’”
      –Henry Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution
 

 34. 

mc034-1.jpg What did a group headed by Grady argue that the New South needed?
a.
stricter laws
c.
more industry
b.
more schools
d.
higher wages
 
 
nar015-1.jpg
 

 35. 

mc035-1.jpg Florida and Alabama were in which of the following military reconstruction districts?
a.
1st District
c.
3rd District
b.
2nd District
d.
4th District
 

 36. 

mc036-1.jpg Based on the map, who was the Union general in command of the smallest of the reconstruction districts?
a.
John Pope
c.
Edward Ord
b.
Philip Sheridan
d.
John Schofield
 
 
nar016-1.jpg
 

 37. 

mc037-1.jpg In which of the following states was the electoral vote of the 1876 election not disputed?
a.
Mississippi
c.
Florida
b.
Oregon
d.
Louisiana
 

 38. 

mc038-1.jpg Based on the map and chart, who received the most popular votes in the 1876 election?
a.
Grant
c.
Hayes
b.
Tilden
d.
none of the above
 
 
nar017-1.jpg
 

 39. 

mc039-1.jpg Based on the graphs, which of the four agricultural crops had not recovered to1860 production levels by 1890?
a.
cotton
c.
rice
b.
tobacco
d.
corn
 

 40. 

mc040-1.jpg Which agricultural crop suffered the most severe drop in production between 1860 and 1870?
a.
cotton
c.
rice
b.
tobacco
d.
corn
 

 41. 

mc041-1.jpg
mc041-2.jpg Which of the following could be the title of this diagram?
a.
Restoring Southern Power
c.
The Sharecropping System
b.
The Homesteading System
d.
Northern Agricultural Systems
 
 
nar018-1.jpg
 

 42. 

mc042-1.jpg Which of the following states was not readmitted to the Union by 1868?
a.
Tennessee
c.
Alabama
b.
Arkansas
d.
Georgia
 

 43. 

mc043-1.jpg Based on the map, which were the last two states to reestablish conservative governments?
a.
Texas & Virginia
c.
South Carolina & Florida
b.
Arkansas & North Carolina
d.
Louisiana & Florida
 
 
nar019-1.jpg
 

 44. 

mc044-1.jpg Based on the map, how many African American colleges and universities were in North Carolina in or before 1865?
a.
none
c.
six
b.
five
d.
eleven
 

 45. 

mc045-1.jpg Based on the map, how many African American colleges and universities were founded in Mississippi in 1865–1915?
a.
none
c.
five
b.
four
d.
nine
 

 46. 

mc046-1.jpg
mc046-2.jpg Based on the map, which general’s military reconstruction district contained the most Southern states?
a.
General Pope
c.
General Sickles
b.
General Ord
d.
General Schofield
 
 
nar020-1.jpg
 

 47. 

mc047-1.jpg Based on the graph, which state had more African American than white representatives.
a.
Georgia
c.
South Carolina
b.
North Carolina
d.
Texas
 

 48. 

mc048-1.jpg Use the graph to answer the question. In which of the following states was African American representation the lowest?
a.
Georgia
c.
Virginia
b.
South Carolina
d.
North Carolina
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 49. 

President Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction of the South was opposed in Congress by ____________________ Republicans.
 

 

 50. 

President Lincoln's assassination probably ensured that the terms for Southern states to rejoin the Union would be much more ____________________ than if he had lived.
 

 

 51. 

President Johnson's plan for reintegrating the South was called ____________________.
 

 

 52. 

The Civil Rights Act of 1866 became law over the ____________________ of President Andrew Johnson.
 

 

 53. 

According to the Tenure of Office Act, the president could not remove government officials without ____________________ approval.
 

 

 54. 

In the presidential election of 1868, ____________________ won the votes of most African Americans in the South.
 

 

 55. 

During Reconstruction, two African Americans served in the Senate and ____________________ African Americans served in the House of Representatives.
 

 

 56. 

Although freed African Americans wanted to buy their own farmland, most could only rent land and become ____________________.
 

 

 57. 

The disputed election of 1876 was decided by the ____________________.
 

 

 58. 

President ____________________ ended the federal government's support for African American equality in the South after Reconstruction.
 

 

 59. 

After Reconstruction, political power in the South shifted to the ____________________ Party.
 

 

 60. 

By the 1880s, many Southerners began to encourage the development of an economy based on ____________________ instead of agriculture.
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
amnesty
d.
impeach
b.
Thaddeus Stevens
e.
override
c.
Blanche K. Bruce
 

 61. 

a pardon
 

 62. 

Radical Republican
 

 63. 

to defeat a veto
 

 64. 

to charge with wrongdoing
 

 65. 

African American senator
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
poll tax
d.
cash crops
b.
Ku Klux Klan
e.
John Wilkes Booth
c.
Hiram Revels
 

 66. 

assassinated President Abraham Lincoln
 

 67. 

African American senator
 

 68. 

secret society of terrorists
 

 69. 

crops to be sold for money
 

 70. 

fee paid before voting
 
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
black codes
d.
lynching
b.
Edwin Stanton
e.
scalawag
c.
Rutherford B. Hayes
 

 71. 

Secretary of War
 

 72. 

laws to control freed men and women
 

 73. 

hanging
 

 74. 

scoundrel
 

 75. 

champion of political reform
 

Short Answer
 
 
African Americans in the United States Congress, late 1800s
YearNo. of MembersStates RepresentedYearNo. of MembersStates Represented
1870
2
SC, GA1883
1
NC
1871
4
SC, AL, FL1889
1
NC
1873
4
AL, SC, MI1890
2
VA, SC
1875
4
AL, NC, LA, SC1893
1
SC
1877
1
SC1896
1
SC
1882
1
NC1897
1
NC
 

 76. 

sa076-1.jpgIn what year were the first African American members of Congress elected? What states did they represent?
 

 77. 

sa077-1.jpgWhat years had the most African American members of Congress?
 

 78. 

sa078-1.jpgIn what years was there only one African American member of Congress?
 

 79. 

sa079-1.jpgWhich state was most often represented in Congress by African Americans?
 

 80. 

sa080-1.jpgWhy do you think there were four African American members of Congress in 1873, but only three states represented?
 

 81. 

sa081-1.jpgWhich is the only Northern state that had an African American member of Congress during these years?
 
 
“SEC. 5. . . . Every freedman, free negro and mulatto shall, on the second Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, and annually thereafter, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof as follows, to wit: if living in any incorporated city, town, or village, a license from the mayor thereof; and if living outside of an incorporated city, town, or village, from the member of the board of police of his beat, authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work; or a written contract, as provided in Section 6 in this act; which license may be revoked for cause at any time by the authority granting the same.”
–Laws of the state of Mississippi passed in October–December 1865
 

 82. 

sa082-1.jpgThis passage is excerpted from one of the “black codes,” discriminatory laws passed by many state legislatures right after the Civil War. What is this section of the law designed to do?
 
 
“Let there be White Leagues formed in every town, village and hamlet of the South, and let us organize for the great struggle which seems inevitable. If the October elections which are to be held at the North are favorable to the radicals, the time will have arrived for us to prepare for the very worst. The radicalism of the republican party must be met by the radicalism of white men. We have no war to make against the United States Government, but against the republican party our hate must be unquenchable, our war interminable and merciless. Fast fleeting away is the day of wordy protests and idle appeals to the magnanimity of the republican party. By brute force they are endeavoring to force us into acquiescence to their hideous programme. We have submitted long enough to indignities, and it is time to meet brute-force with brute-force.”
Atlanta News, editorial, 1874
 

 83. 

sa083-1.jpgWhat point of view is expressed in this passage?
 
 
“With malice toward none; with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan. . . .”
–March 1865
 

 84. 

sa084-1.jpgWhat does this excerpt from Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address suggest that his attitude might have been toward the South after the Civil War?
 

 85. 

sa085-1.jpg
sa085-2.jpgBased on the time line, during whose presidential administration was the Fifteenth Amendment ratified?
 

Essay
 

 86. 

What were the requirements for a state to rejoin the Union under the Wade-Davis Bill?
 

 87. 

How did many of the Southern states keep freed African Americans from voting?
 

 88. 

What were the black codes, and how did they hurt African Americans?
 

 89. 

Who were scalawags and carpetbaggers, and how did they get their names?
 

 90. 

Why did the results of the Congressional elections of 1874 help weaken Congress's commitment to Reconstruction and support for African American rights?
 

 91. 

After the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, which United States citizens had the right to vote?
 



 
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